By Yuk L. Yung, William B. DeMore
11 planetary atmospheres are incorporated for precise examine during this reference/text, 4 for the large planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune), 4 for the small our bodies (Io, Titan, Triton, and Pluto), and 3 for the terrestrial planets (Mars, Venus, and Earth). The authors have performed a entire survey of the significant chemical cycles that keep an eye on the current composition and earlier historical past of planetary atmospheres, utilizing the database supplied by way of contemporary spacecraft missions supplemented by way of Earth-based observations.
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Additional info for Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres
Above 3100 A the atmosphere is transparent except for Rayleigh scattering and aerosol (and cloud) scattering. 24 Depth of penetration of solar UV radiation in Earth's atmosphere. The line indicates the altitude where optical depth is unity. The vertical arrows show ionization limits. , 1965, "Solar Optical Radiation and Its Role in Upper Atmospheric Processes," in Physics in the Earth's Upper Atmosphere, C. O. : Prentice Hall, 1965), p. 31. 2 Rayleigh Scattering Rayleigh scattering is important in planetary atmospheres.
The preceding discussion reveals the special significance of the region of the atmosphere where the optical depth r(z) is unity. 24 shows the altitude of the optical depth unity in the terrestrial atmosphere. The EUV fluxes are absorbed at high altitudes, resulting in the dissociation and ionization of the major constituents in the thermosphere, leading to the formation of the layers of the ionosphere. At longer wavelengths, the solar flux penetrates deeper into the atmosphere and is absorbed by Oa in the Schumann-Runge bands and the Herzberg bands, leading to the production of O3.
15 x 10" 1013 1014 1015 1015 1016 1016 1017 reminiscent of that of the hot thermospheres of the giant planets discussed in chapter 1. The variation in the corona is largely responsible for variations of the solar ultraviolet flux over a solar cycle. 1). The reason for the excess is the same as that of the ultraviolet excess: Both emissions are from the corona. Hence, even though the radio emissions play no role in the photochemistry of planetary atmospheres, they are easily observed from the ground and the data can serve as an indicator of coronal activity.