Eudemian ethics. / Books I, II, and VIII by Aristotle

By Aristotle

It has lengthy been well-known that anybody heavily attracted to Aristotle's ethical philosophy might want to take complete account of the Eudemian Ethics, a piece nonetheless gravely ignored in want of the better-known Nicomachean Ethics. The relation among the 2 remains to be the topic of full of life scholarly debate. This quantity encompasses a translation of 3 of the 8 books of the Eudemian Ethics--those which are more likely to be of such a lot curiosity to philosophers today--together with a philosophical remark on those books from a modern viewpoint. meant to serve the desires of readers of Aristotle with no wisdom of Greek, this book's target in translation has been to offer as actual an idea as attainable of Aristotle's textual content; yet for the good thing about those people who are capable of learn the unique, there are notes at the Greek textual content used for problematical passages.

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So vice and virtue must be voluntary, for there is no necessity to do vicious things. That is why vice is blamed and 10 why virtue is commended; for reprehensible and bad acts that are involuntary are not blamed, nor are good ones praised; only the voluntary ones are. Moreover, we all offer praise and blame looking more at the choice than the actual deeds (though, even so, the actual exercise of the virtue is more worth having than the virtue itself), because men do bad acts when forced to do so, but no one chooses under IS those conditions.

A human being, moreover, is a starting-point of some actions, and he alone of animals; for of nothing else should we say that it acted. Among starting-points, those that are of that sort-those from which changes first arise-are called controlling starting-points, and most correctly those from which results what cannot be otherwise, the sort of control with which the god perhaps governs. In the case of unchanging starting-points, mathematical ones, for instance, there is no controlling, though they are called 'startingpoints' on the strength of a similarity; with these, too, if the starting-point were different, everything demonstrated would change, though they do not change one another where one thing is refuted by another, except through refuting the hypothesis and demonstrating by means of it.

Being good and being fine-and-good admit of distinction, not only in their names but also in themselves. For, of all goods, those are ends which are worth having for their own sake, while, 20 of these, all that are commended for themselves are fine. For of these things it is true that the actions from them are commended and they are themselves commended-justice, both itself and the actions from it, and those who are temperate; for temperance is also commended. But health is not something commended; for neither is its function.

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