Episodes from the Early History of Mathematics (New by Asger Aaboe, the author

By Asger Aaboe, the author

Whereas arithmetic has a protracted heritage, in lots of methods it was once no longer until eventually the booklet of Euclid's components that it grew to become an summary technological know-how. Babylonian arithmetic, the subject of the 1st bankruptcy, mostly handled counting and the point of interest during this ebook is at the notations the Babylonians used to symbolize numbers, either integers and fractions. even supposing their notation had its' limits, we nonetheless use it this present day for time and perspective degree. after which there has been Euclid, and all used to be ordered. there isn't any cause to think a technique or one other that Euclid used to be the 1st to end up the theorems in his vintage paintings, yet there isn't any doubt as to his organizational genius. His "rigorous" surroundings down of the rules of geometric concept used to be actually a turning aspect in summary arithmetic, while you're no longer inspired whilst studying the fabric of the second one bankruptcy, taken from Euclid, then you definitely haven't any aesthetic appreciation for what arithmetic is. whereas the maths has been wiped clean, the wonder hasn't ever been crowned. the subsequent bankruptcy is set the best genius ahead of Newton, Archimedes. in reality, had he been blessed with larger notation, it truly is attainable that he may have invented, or not less than pre-invented calculus. If even 1/2 the legends approximately his mechanical ability are precise, they're nonetheless remarkable. it seems that, complete armies and navies have been terrified on the rumor that one in every of his mechanical units used to be approximately for use. The crispness of his theorems and the logical development can be simply as instructive millions of years from now. the ultimate bankruptcy describes how Ptolemy used to be capable of build trigonometric tables. utilizing the chords of circles, he used to be capable of build tables that may nonetheless be used this day. Civilization improves and mathematicians proceed to extend the mathematical box and refine previous paintings. although, the attractiveness of prior paintings nonetheless shines via, and during this e-book you could event a few of the earliest mathematical diamonds, hewn from idea and destined to outlive so long as people do.

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64) ≤ (f, xα )L2 (]0,T [;H) and thus L2 (]0,T [;H) ≤ f L2 (]0,T [;H) , α > 0. Before estimate (xα )α>0 , let us check that (αxα )α>0 is bounded. By taking x0 ∈ D(∂ϕ), after standard calculation we find that t xα (t) − x0 ≤ e−αt xα (0) − x0 + e−α(t−s) f (s) − αx0 − ∂ϕ(x0 ) ds. (65) 0 Since xα is T -periodic we can write xα (t) − x0 = ≤ lim n→∞ xα (nT + t) − x0 lim e−α(nT +t) xα (0) n→∞ nT +t −α(nT +t−s) + e − x0 f (s) − αx0 − ∂ϕ(x0 ) ds 0 ≤ ≤ 1 αx0 + ∂ϕ(x0 ) + lim n→∞ α 1 αx0 + ∂ϕ(x0 ) α + lim n→∞ nT +t e−α(nT +t−s) f (s) ds 0 1 + e−αt (e−α(n−1)T + · · · + e−αT + 1) · f −αt L1 1 e αx0 + ∂ϕ(x0 ) + 1 + · f L1 (]0,T [;H) α 1 − e−αT 1 ≤ C1 (x0 , T, f L2 (]0,T [;H) ) 1 + , 0 ≤ t ≤ T, α > 0.

For arbitrarily [u, v] ∈ ∂ϕ we have 1 2αt e xα (t) − u 2 2 ≤ 1 2αs e xα (s) − u 2 t 2 e2ατ (f (τ ) − αu − v, xα (τ ) − u) dτ, + s with 0 ≤ s ≤ t ≤ T , α > 0. Passing to the limit for α 1 x(t) − u 2 2 ≤ 1 x(s) − u 2 0 we get t 2 (f (τ ) − v, x(τ ) − u) dτ, + 0 ≤ s ≤ t ≤ T. s Thus (x(t)−x(s), x(s)−u) ≤ 1 x(t)−u 2 2 − t 1 x(s)−u 2 2 ≤ (f (τ )−v, x(τ )−u) dτ, s for 0 ≤ s ≤ t ≤ T . e. e. t ∈]0, T [, ∀ [u, v] ∈ ∂ϕ. e. e. on ]0, T [. Since ϕ is lower-semicontinuous we also have ϕ(x(t)) ≤ lim inf ϕ(xα (t)) ≤ lim inf ϕ ◦ xα α 0 α L∞ 0 ≤ sup 0<γ<1 ϕ ◦ xγ L∞ .

Brezis, Analyse fonctionnelle, Masson, (1998). ´ [7] A. Haraux, Equations d’´evolution non lin´eaires: solutions born´ees p´eriodiques, Ann. Inst. Fourier 28 (1978), 2, pp. 202-220.

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