By Foster C., Green K., Bleda M.
Ultimate report back to the dep. for surroundings foodstuff and Rural Affairs
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Additional resources for Environmental Impacts of Food Production and Consumption
Pasta and Rice Preliminary work in this project identified that it would be valuable to understand the environmental impacts of pasta and rice also. In our wide literature survey we have identified no literature using LCA approaches to analyse all the environmental impacts associated with these foods specifically (or for instance differentiating between the impacts of growing bread wheat and the “durum” wheat used to make pasta). CarlssonKanyama and Boström-Carlsson (2001) briefly discuss pasta in a comparative study of the energy requirements of the different life cycle stages of several foods, the main focus of which is cooking.
A number of other researchers have considered the energy demands of carrots and associated global warming impacts. None is reported in the detailed format of the TNO work, the results of which have been used to generate Figures 15. 1MJ/kg, within the range of values identified by TNO. In a study focused on the different energy requirements of different methods of preserving foods, Ritchie (2005) found that freezing had the greatest system-wide requirement of the techniques considered, while refrigerated preservation of fresh foods and canning had similar energy requirements to each other, some 30-50% lower than those of the frozen food types studied.
Apple production in New Zealand has been investigated by Mila i Canals, Burnip and Cowell (2006). This study highlights the variability in environmental impacts arising from different farm practices – even in the same part of one country. 7MJ/kg in a “demonstration orchard” in the same part of New Zealand. Mila i Canals et al. (2006) point out that fertiliser use and water use varied enormously 45 between the orchards studied. It is notable that energy inputs per unit of production are in fact lower for the commercial orchards studied than for the demonstration orchards.