Engineering of Functional Skeletal Tissues (Topics in Bone by Felix Bronner (Editor), Mary C. Farach-Carson (Editor),

By Felix Bronner (Editor), Mary C. Farach-Carson (Editor), Antonios G. Mikos (Editor)

This can be the third quantity in a sequence of studies founded at the unmarried significant subject of bone alternative, discussing the biology of stem cells and mobile signs, the information had to make stem cell-engineered bone tissue a truth, and the way to avoid bone allograft an infection. valuable as a followup to its predecessors, and as a stand-alone reference, it's going to curiosity a wide viewers from orthopedists and bioengineers to dentists.

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Engineering of Functional Skeletal Tissues (Topics in Bone Biology, 3)

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This in turn has impaired recruitment and/or differentiation of these cell types. Thus, VEGF contributes importantly not only to angiogenesis, but also to osteogenesis. In mice lacking the VEGF gene, the long bones demonstrate a disturbed vascular pattern at birth, consistent with reduced bone growth [140]. Osteoblast and hypertrophic chondrocyte development are also impaired [140]. VEGFs play an important role in regulating bone remodeling. They do so by attracting endothelial cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts [46, 147] and by autocrine regulation of chondrocyte function [33].

These cytokines have been implicated in a wide variety of diseases, including tumorigenesis, septic shock, viral replication, bone resorption, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, and other inflammatory diseases [19, 121, 153, 187]. Recently, several therapeutic regimens have been approved that antagonize TNF-α activity to treat a variety of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn’s disease [163, 184]. Preliminary studies have also examined whether these approaches can be used to impede the loosening of orthopedic prostheses [37].

3 BMP Function in Skeletal Repair In 1965, Marshall R. Urist demonstrated that the implantation of demineralized bone at 23 extraskeletal sites induces de novo formation of cartilage and bone [203]. This seminal observation led to investigations culminating in the extensive purification of the osteoinductive activity of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and the sequencing and cloning of the individual BMPs [35, 166, 217]. The subsequent expression of BMPs in recombinant systems permitted their use in a variety of animal models, in particular to demonstrate their stimulating effects on the repair of fracture and skeletal defects [53, 67, 221].

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