By Ivan Singer

During this monograph the writer provides the idea of duality for nonconvex approximation in normed linear areas and nonconvex international optimization in in the community convex areas. exact proofs of effects are given, besides various illustrations. whereas the various effects were released in mathematical journals, this is often the 1st time those effects look in e-book shape. additionally, unpublished effects and new proofs are supplied. This monograph could be of serious curiosity to specialists during this and comparable fields.

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**Extra info for Duality for Nonconvex Approximation and Optimization**

**Example text**

A>GXM|*||=i,jG/? OGXM|ci>||z=i,je/? 252) Proof. 252). 16. 253) 44 1. 4. where HQ ^^ denotes the set of all hyperplanes that strictly separate G and XQ. 4b). 5 (which is very convenient for applications in various concrete spaces, since for these spaces the general form of continuous linear functions O e Z* is well known and simple). This basic idea, which we shall call the reduction principle, will be applied later also to nonconvex approximation and will be extended to convex and nonconvex optimization. *

82) 20 1. Preliminaries and the bipolar of C is C°° := (C°)°. The classical "bipolar theorem" states that, for any subset C of a locally convex space X, we have C°° = co(C U {0}); hence, a set C containing 0 is closed and convex if and only if C°° = C. + = [0, +oo], it is necessary to give a precise meaning to expressions like oo — oo and 0 X 00. , Moreau [164]) that the usual addition -\- on R = (—oo, +oo) admits two natural extensions to R, + and +, called upper and lower addition, respectively, defined by a+b = afb = a-\-b if either/?

110), we have 3/(0) = {CD G X*| CD < / } = supp/. 118) where 5x* = {O G Z * | | | 0 | | < 1}, the unit ball of X*. 8. 99) is attained for some OQ G X* if and only if 4>o e df(zo). g.. Holmes [106, p. 5. If X is a locally convex space and f,h:X^^R are convex functions such that one of them is continuous at some point 6>/dom / Pi dom h, then Hf + h)(xo) = df(xo) + dh(xo) {xo e X). 9. It is easy to see that here the + signs are just the usual sums. We recall that if X is a linear space and / : X -> R is a.