Distributed DataBase System by Aseem Kumar Patel

By Aseem Kumar Patel

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This chapter will describe the topic of load balancing in general terms and provide examples of problem situations and their solutions. The specific implementation of these solutions will be illustrated when Power Fortran and IRIS Power C are presented. 1 Homoparallelization The relatively small number of processors (two to eight) available for homoparallelization of loops ensures that each thread will have to execute a sizable fraction of the iterations comprising the loop. This is a practical outcome, or limitation, of implementing homoparallelization.

It can be described in one of three ways: flow dependence, antidependence, and 47 48 IRIS Power-Language Prelude output (assignment) dependence. These descriptions are general, but later in this chapter, you will see them embodied in specific code examples. 0; Y = X; Row dependence relates the assignment of a variable to the use of that variable. The variable x is assigned first, and then used in the preceding example; the execution order of the statements is critical. Flow dependence is also described as true dependence.

Because the same array element is used for both use and assignment, each iteration remains independent. PARALLEL PEARL: Parallel-safe loops can be run serially in reverse index order and give correct results. 50 IRIS Power-Language Prelude In fact, a good test of independence in a loop is if the loop can be serially executed backward from the upper limit, and arrive at the same answer. It is considerably easier to conduct and validate this test than it is to completely randomize the order of iteration execution, and this is a fair test.

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