By J M Overduin, P S Wesson
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5 × 10−4 erg cm−2 s−1 ) is 4 million times. 63) where we have taken H0 t0 ≈ 1 and t0 ≈ 16 Gyr as suggested by observational data (chapter 4). 63) is particularly intriguing. 3M . Of course, the luminosity of galaxies cannot stay constant over these timescales, because most of their light comes from much more massive stars which burn themselves out after tens of Gyr or less. Still, the closeness of these numbers prompts us to ask: is this steep increase in theoretical EBL intensity with 38 The modern resolution and energy time a feature only of the pure de Sitter model; or does it also arise in models containing matter along with vacuum energy?
41) c2 = 3H∞ The static analogue 27 This constitutes a link between (a constant of nature in Einstein’s theory) and the asymptotic expansion rate H∞ (a dynamical parameter). If > 0, then we will necessarily measure ,0 ∼ 1 at late times, regardless of the microphysical origin of the vacuum energy. e. e. a negative curvature) enhances them. Open models, in other words, expand more quickly at any given redshift z (and therefore last longer) than closed ones. This curvature term, however, goes only as (1 + z)2 , which means that its importance drops off relative to the matter and radiation terms at early times, and relative to the vacuum term at late ones.
The short-wavelength cut-off in these plots is an artefact of the δ˚ function SED, but the behaviour of Iλ (λ0 ) at wavelengths above λp = 4400 A is quite revealing, even in a model as simple as this one. In the EdS case (a), the rapid fall-off in intensity with λ0 indicates that nearby (low-redshift) galaxies ˚ which is an ‘echo’ of the dominate. There is a secondary hump at λ0 ≈ 10 000 A, peak in galaxy formation, redshifted into the near infrared.