By Bartelmann M.
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Cosmology bargains with the present kingdom of puzzling over the fundamental questions on the heart of the sphere of cosmology. extra emphasis than ordinary is wear the connections to comparable domain names of technological know-how, resembling geometry, relativity, thermodynamics, particle physics, and - specifically - at the intrinsic connections among different subject matters.
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29) that density perturbations grow ∝ a2 during the radiation-dominated era, and ∝ a afterwards • as the universe expands, the Hubble radius grows, and thus the scale of perturbations which can be in causal contact; a density perturbation mode is said to “enter the horizon” when its wave length λ equals the Hubble radius • modes entering the horizon while radiation dominates feel the radiation pressure, which almost completely stops the growth of the density perturbation until matter starts dominating and radiation pressure quickly becomes negligible; accordingly, modes which are small enough to enter the horizon before aeq are relatively suppressed compared to larger modes which enter the horizon afterwards 47 CHAPTER 2.
132) • there is approximately a billion photons per baryon in the universe; the entropy of the photon gas dominates the entropy of the universe by a huge margin, justifying the assumption of adiabatic expansion, because any contribution to the entropy due to irreversible processes can be neglected compared to the photon entropy CHAPTER 1. g. e. NH ! where Ze,p,H and Ne,p,H are the canonical partition functions and numbers of electrons, protons, and hydrogen atoms, respectively; the photons do not contribute because they provide the heat bath controlling the temperature T • the baryon number is NB = Np + NH , the electron number is Ne = Np , thus NH = NB − Ne ; given the total baryon number, all other numbers can be expressed by the electron number Ne • since the numbers Ne,p,H will be very large, we can use Stirling’s formula for the factorials, ln N!