By Thorsten M. Buzug
This quantity offers an summary of X-ray expertise and the historic improvement of recent CT structures. the main target of the ebook is an in depth derivation of reconstruction algorithms in second and smooth 3D cone-beam structures. a radical research of CT artifacts and a dialogue of functional matters similar to dose concerns supply extra perception into present CT platforms. even supposing written commonly for graduate scholars, practitioners also will take advantage of this book.
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Additional info for Computer Tomography - From Photon Statistics to Modern Cone-Beam CT
1 Gas Detectors X-ray radiation is able to ionize gases. This fact was discovered very early in the last century and led to the development of the well-known Geiger–Müller counter. In the ﬁrst tomographic experiments carried out by Cormack and Hounsﬁeld, the Geiger– Müller counter was used as a detector in pencil-beam geometry. In the early days of clinical CT, gas-based detector arrays were also manufactured for what are known as third-generation scanners in fan-beam geometry. Even today, some scanners using high-pressure xenon are in use.
In Fig. , the typical composition of such a digital ﬂat-panel X-ray detector is shown. In Fig. a, the key aspect of the construction is illustrated. Each sensor element consists of a photodiode and a thin-ﬁlm transistor (TFT). Both are made of amorphous silicon on a single glass substrate. The pixel matrix is coated with an X-ray-sensitive layer. Multi-chip modules are used as read-out electronics at the edge of the detector ﬁeld. The X-ray-sensitive coating is a cesium iodide layer used, for example, in General Electric CT systems.
B illustrates a K β emission. ) where Z is again the atomic number of the anode material and n is the principal quantum number of the electron falling to the K-shell. Experiments are in good agreement with Kramers’ result, but show a slight dependence on Z. 2 Fundamentals of X-ray Physics The result is the production of a large number of X-ray quanta at a few discrete energies. It can be seen in Fig. that the probability of X-ray quanta emerging by the Kα process is higher than the probability of bremsstrahlung quanta at the same energy.