By Keith J. Stine
Introducing the rising box carbohydrate nanostructures, this publication can be a special source for researchers to profit more than a few tools of making use of the sphere to their very own paintings. better entry, in addition to larger collaboration, to this new interdisciplinary box is meant for either artificial carbohydrate chemists and researchers in nanoscience similar fields. It covers:
- the major kinds of nanostructures almost immediately lower than research for amendment via carbohydrates, together with nanoparticles, nanorods, magnetic debris, dendrimers, nanoporous, and floor restricted structures
- overview and advent to the sphere of carbohydrate nanotechnology, and particularly its purposes to its organic systems
- Provides a distinct source for researchers to benefit in regards to the innovations used to represent the actual and organic homes of carbohydrate-modified nanostructures
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Extra info for Carbohydrate Nanotechnology
Most studies using glycosurfaces for binding, capture, or sensing of E. coli however use the direct detection approach [13,90,121,155–157], as the use of the multivalent binding capacity of Con A as an intermediate adds additional complexity to interpreting the already complex carbohydrate–protein interaction of interest . In general, the bacterial binding can be detected and/or quantified by, for example, (fluorescence) microscopy [90,121], faradaic EIS , metal mesh device (MMD) sensors , or quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM‐D) techniques .
7), including the type of information that can possibly be obtained with each of these techniques. 1 Contact Angle Measurements (Wettability) One of the most often used techniques for characterization of modified surfaces, including glycosurfaces, is the measurement of the surface wettability. The surface wettability is measured statically by placing a small drop of liquid on a surface and measuring the angle formed between the liquid and the solid surface, named contact angle. Nowadays, these measurements are obtained using a camera to record the image of the drop and a software that provides different fitting models to calculate the contact angle [131,132].
In addition, AFM can be combined with other characterization techniques, such as XPS, ToF‐SIMS, and IR, for confirmation of the biofunctionalization of the surface with carbohydrates. Various techniques have been used for characterization of glycosurfaces, and each of them provides different types of information. It is usually necessary to apply a combination of two or three techniques to properly characterize a glycosurface. The best selection of characterization methods often depends on the material of the mod ified substrate, the type of modification (SAMs, glycopolymers, or noncovalent immobilization), and the intended final application of the glycosurface.