Basic Civil and Environmental Engineering (As Per Pune by C P Kaushik, S S Bhavikatti, Anubha Kaushik

By C P Kaushik, S S Bhavikatti, Anubha Kaushik

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This is used to ensure the filling of congested sections. It includes the high amount of super plasticizers and cement to increase flowability. Viscosity agents are also added. The mix may incorporate steel or polypropylene fibres also. The sand can be finer. In Sweden bridges are built with SCC. In Japan two anchor blocks were constructed in Akashi-Kailro bridge. In France SCC is preferred in cities as noise free concreting. Since there is no vibrations in compacting, form works can be reused several time.

Discuss whether concrete rubble and crusher dust can be used in making fresh concrete. Highlight their advantages and disadvantages. 7. Write short notes on recycling the following industrial wastes: (a) Fly ash (b) Silica fume (c) Blast furnace slag and (d) Red mud. 8. Why polythene is environmental hazardous material? Discuss possible ways of recycling the polythene. CHAPTER IV Construction of Substructures The structure that we see above ground surface may be called as superstructure. The load carried by the superstructure is to be suitably distributed to the ground so that it is safely carried.

Increasing the depth of foundation, since the lower strata or ground has natural campaction. 2. Putting granular materials like sand and gravel on the natural soil and then compacting well. 3. By combining the soil in an enclosed area by driving sheet piles or sand piles. 4. Draining out the area, if it is a marshy land. 5. Attempts have been made to improve bearing capacity of soil by chemical treatment also. 1 shows the safe bearing capacities of some common soils according to National Building Code of India (1983).

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