By G. J. Van Mill
In a comparatively brief time period two-dimensional echo cardiography has develop into crucial non-invasive diagnostic device within the day-by-day perform of a pediatric heart specialist who predominantly offers with congenital structural middle illness in neonates and babies. accordingly, one-dimensional M-mode echocardiography has misplaced such a lot of its significance fairly during this box. accordingly, an atlas exhibiting completely two-dimensional echocardiograms of the commonest and a few much less often taking place malformations looked to be an invaluable addition to the present literature. The confinement to 2 dimensional imaging by myself allowed an problematic presentation of a few of the defects with greater than 2 hundred chosen nonetheless frames and plenty of extra explanatory drawings and diagrams. the fabric used to be gathered from sufferers who have been observed the dept of Pediatric Cardiology of the Wilhelmina college kid's medical institution in Utrecht in the course of a interval of approximately 2 years. The two-dimensional echocardiographic findings have been correlated with cardiac catheterization info and/or surgeries and/or publish mortem investigations. the required echocardiographic apparatus was once aquired with monetary relief from the Dutch center beginning. we're indebted to Mrs. J. W. Wetselaar for her awesome paintings. We additionally thank P. D. Woltema and F. J. van Waert for the photographic reproductions, Jacomine Bosma for getting ready and type-setting the complete manuscript and Dr. N. Middleton for seriously examining the English textual content. G. J. van Mill, M. D. A. J. Moulaert, M. D. E. Harinck, M. D. CONTENTS 1. advent and the traditional middle advent the conventional center 2 2.
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Extra info for Atlas of Two-Dimensional Echocardiography in Congenital Cardiac Defects
Circulation 63:452-457, 1981. 1. Subcostal four chamber two-dimensional echocardiogram of a patient with a secundum (central) atrial septal defect. RA= right atrium, LA= left atrium, pV= pulmonary vein, RV= right ventricle, LV= left ventricle . 2. 1. The remaining parts of the interatrial septum are more clearly visualized. RA = right atrium, LA = left atrium, pv = pulmonary valve, RV = right ventricle, LV = left ventricle. 3. Subcostal four chamber two-dimensional echocardiogram of a patient with a central atrial septal defect.
Diagrammatic representation of the matching cross-sectional planes showing the different components of the interventricular septum. The subcostal longitudinal view (a) exhibits the membranous septum and the transition zone between the inlet and trabecular septa. The four chamber view (b) only shows the muscular inlet septum. The small part between the attachments of the tricuspid and mitral valves is the atrioventricular septum. In the parasternal long axis view (c) and the parasternal sagittal view through the pulmonary artery (d) the trabecular and outlet septa are visualized.
Two-dimensional echocardiographic and morphological correlations. Br Heart 1 47:316 - 328, 1982. 5. Moulaert AI: Anatomy of ventricular septal defect. ). Paediatric Cardiology 1977, Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone, 1978, 113 -124. 6. Soto B, Becker AE, Moulaert AI, Lie IT, Anderson RH: Classification of isolated ventricular septal defects. Br Heart 1 43:332-343,1980. 7. Gramiak RT, Shah PM, Kramer DH: Ultrasound cardiography. Contrast studies in anatomy and function. Radiology 92:939, 1969. 8.