Applicative High Order Programming: Standard ML in Practice by S. Sokolowski

By S. Sokolowski

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For example SUBL 200,204 subtracts the contents of the longword at location 200 from the contents of the longword at location 204, leaving the result in location 204. VAX Instruction Format 41 We usually do not specify addresses numerically. Instead, we assign symbolic names to the data locations and let the assembler keep track of the numeric values. A symbolic name is created by labelling a particular line of code or data. The resulting symbolic address, or label, provides a means of referencing the location.

To specify a symbol that can be referenced globally (that is, outside of the current program), the notations :: and = = are used. Constants The assembler interprets all constants as decimal integers. 2. For example, the statement BYTE_0F_0NES = A XFF equates the symbol BYTE_OF_ONES to hexadecimal value FF. To define an ASCII constant, a delimiter character must be placed before and after the string. ABC. A ADABCD A equate the symbol ABC to the ASCII equivalent of the three characters ABC. 3. , and for allocating large blocks of storage.

5. What are the parts of an instruction? Describe in detail the steps in the execution of an instruction. Why are instructions stored (and executed) sequentially in memory? Can you think of an alternative? 6. You have seen the CPU execution cycle: instructions are fetched from sequential memory locations and executed, one after another, until a branch or change of control occurs. Can you imagine a machine in which instructions are not fetched sequentially? How would such a machine function? What would its instructions look like?

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