Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004: Mountain strongholds by Mir Bahmanyar

By Mir Bahmanyar

Following the Soviet invasion in 1979, the Mujahideen defenders of Afghanistan constructed and bolstered many normal cave structures to exploit as provide bases and protecting positions. The Taliban and Al Qaeda additional bolstered those positions within the Nineties. Following the occasions of September eleven, 2001, those cave structures have once again come to prominence and websites comparable to Tora Bora and Zhawar Kili have featured in information headlines worldwide. This identify presents an research of those caves and underground platforms, and discusses the U.S.-led Coalition's tactical method of dislodging the enemy from those fortified positions.

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Additional resources for Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004: Mountain strongholds of the Mujahideen, Taliban & Al Qaeda (Fortress, Volume 26)

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Kutsenko again called him and ordered that they cease work and depart. ” Kutsenko then I told him “You may stay here for an hour, but your soldiers need to quickly join the convoy. The Mujahideen are here and we Lieutenant Christopher Blaha of the 1st Battalion, 87th Infantry Regiment, 10th Mountain Division, gets ready to throw a grenade into a cave, April 6, 2004. S. qxd A soldier with 2nd Battalion, 27th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division (Light), pulls security for a squad of soldiers climbing the mountain in search of caves, April 4, 2004.

N. S. forces. ● Be aware of personal and group rivalries and conflicts as they can lead to problems within Mujahideen groups. ● Take full advantage of the cultural and linguistic identities between insurgent and government personnel. qxd 11/3/09 12:36 Page 40 Defending a cave complex Images of the Tora Bora region from IKONOS. , attempted to destroy the hard-core elements of Al Qaeda, including Osama bin Laden, during Operation Enduring Freedom. " (Space Imaging) 40 Defensive operations of cave/bunker/tunnel complexes would remain relatively the same throughout 1979–2004, with the notable exception of better technology available regarding shoulder-launched weapons such as the American-manufactured Stinger missile that has had an excellent rate of success in downing Soviet aircraft.

After flushing an entrance with CS grenades, the Mity Mite can then blow powdered CS-1 into tunnel entrances, rendering the tunnel unusable to the enemy for a short period of time, at least as far as the first “firewall” within the tunnel system. 32 Dangers The dangers inherent to tunnel operations fall generally into the following categories and should be guarded against by all personnel connected with these operations: ● Presence of mines and booby traps in the entrance/exit area. ● Presence of small but dangerous concentrations of carbon monoxide produced by burning-type smoke grenades after tunnels are smoked.

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