By James T. Liu, Michael J. Duff, Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics Inaugural Conference

Theories revolutionized the twentieth century view of area and time: Einstein's common thought of relativity and quantum mechanics. Their union has given upward thrust to basic particle theories with additional spacetime dimensions, the inflationary version of massive bang cosmology, the speculation of darkish subject within the universe, the invention of radiation from quantum black holes, and the bushy spacetime geometry of superstrings and M-theory. during this paintings, specialists current advancements in cosmology, theoretical physics and arithmetic, and proportion their recommendations at the way forward for spacetime physics.

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2 in the appendix. 2 we plot the combined HST observations of H0 . 20), which is systematic, is much bigger than the statistical error. This illustrates that there are many unknown eﬀects which complicate the determination of H0 , and which in the past have made all determinations controversial. To give just one example, if there is dust on the sight line to a supernova, its light would be reddened and one would conclude that the recession velocity is higher than it is in reality. 20). 5 The Age of the Universe One of the conclusions of Olbers’ paradox was that the Universe could not be eternal, it must have an age much less than 1023 yr, or else the night sky would be bright.

30) If the mass density ρ of the Universe is large enough, the expansion will halt. 0539 × 1010 h2 eV m−3 . 31) A universe with density ρ > ρc is called closed; with density ρ < ρc it is called open. Expansion in a Newtonian World 21 Expansion. Note that r and ρ are time dependent: they scale with the expansion. Denoting their present values r0 and ρ0 , one has r (t) = r0 a(t), ρ(t) = ρ0 a−3 (t). 27) can then be replaced by the acceleration of the scale: ¨ = r¨/r0 = − 43 π Ga−2 . 33) to obtain ˙2 = − 83 π Gρ0 da da .

A. Lasenby & A. Wilkinson), ASP Conference Proceedings Series, vol. 666. [9] Bennett, C. L. et al. 2003 Preprint arXiv, astro-ph/0302207 and 2003 Astrophys. J. ) and companion papers cited therein. [10] Krauss, L. M. and Chaboyer, B. 2003 Science 299, 65–69. [11] Cayrel, R. et al. 2001 Nature 409, 691. [12] Wanajo, S. et al. 2002 Astrophys. J. 577, 853. [13] Ferreras, I. et al. 2001 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327, L47. [14] Shu, F. H. 1982 The physical Universe. University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA.