1914-1918: The History of the First World War by David Stevenson

By David Stevenson

In the summertime of 1914 Europe exploded right into a frenzy of mass violence. The warfare that had worldwide repercussions, destroying 4 empires and costing hundreds of thousands of lives. Even the successful international locations have been scarred for a new release, and we nonetheless at the present time stay in the conflict's shadow. during this significant new research, released a few 90 years after the 1st international battle all started, David Stevenson re-examines the explanations, direction and influence of this 'war to finish war', putting it within the context of its period and exposing its underlying dynamics. His ebook offers a wide-ranging foreign historical past, drawing on insights from the most recent study. It deals compelling solutions to the most important questions about how this bad fight spread out: questions that stay disturbingly appropriate for our personal time.

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In a stochastic, unstable, and unpredictable world, sustainable design should be inspired by the science of resilience rather than prediction. e. for the capacity to adapt to disturbance and change. Engagement, feedback, prioritization, optimization, adaption, and evolution are geographic design strategies that can build resilience despite the stochasticity, instability, unpredictability, and uncertainty inherent in a non-equilibrium paradigm. These strategies have been theorized, developed, and tested throughout many, diverse disciplines ranging from conservation biology to landscape architecture.

Eventually, given a long-enough timescale, hierarchical disturbances will disequilibrate any adaptive cycle. Local instabilities in a nested adaptive cycle can underlie citywide stability, temporarily answering unmet needs like low-cost housing [16, 25]. New challenges for cities and their urban regions arise in a non-equilibrium paradigm. If a city is no longer considered to be a system perpetuated in a state of dynamic equilibrium, but rather a panarchy of urban adaptive cycles in an urban region, any of which may descend into disequilibrium, then the city is stochastic, unstable, and unpredictable.

While sensitivity modeling is an effective way to approach sustainable decision-making, it is a complex process. Brunner and Starkl [2] reviewed decision aid methodology with a focus on multi-criteria decision support, which provides a less technical approach that would be better applied to policy experts. Despite the inability of indicators to promote urban sustainability decisions, decision frameworks can assist in their application. In particular, multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) offers specific benefits that can improve urban sustainability decisions, by exposing the linkages between indicators and weighing stakeholder opinions [25].

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